• A “definitive account” of the Cold War by Odd Arne Westad, praised by Michael Mandelbaum

    Prof. Westad is one of the great historians of the Cold War. One of his great contributions has been to expand our understanding of the bipolar contest beyond the central front in Europe to include across Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia.

    Prof. Michael Mandelbaum is one of the great analysts of US foreign policy, during that era and today. He is also among the most lucid of writers and appreciates that quality in others.

    So, when Mandelbaum praises Westad’s latest book, The Cold War: A World History,  as the “definitive account,” it is worth taking very seriously.

    To quote Mandelbaum:

    At a certain point after an historical chapter closes it becomes possible to write an account of it that incorporates such consensus as exists, and that may therefore stand as reliable, and as close to definitive as it is possible to come, for a generation. The Cold War, extinct for more than a quarter century, has reached that point, and with The Cold War: A World History, Odd Arne Westad has written such an account….

    The book’s explanation of the two most important and controversial features of the Cold War—its origins and its conclusion—are likely to stand the test of time. The defeat of Germany and the severe weakening of Great Britain and France in World War II left a vacuum of power in Europe, the heart of the international system. The United States and the Soviet Union filled it. They became competitors rather than cooperating with each other because of their strongly held and incompatible ideologies. –Mandelbaum on Westad

    Mandelbaum points to several areas where Westad’s account could be stronger, or where his interpretations could be contested, but his overall conclusion is strongly positive.

    Like the old advertisement that says, “With a name like Smucker’s, it has to be good.”

    With a name like “Odd,” it has to be even-handed. And so it is, says Mandelbaum:

    A book such as this one renders many judgments, and they are, for the most part, balanced. –Mandelbaum on Westad

    Mandelbaum is too thoughtful to put it like this, so I will: Westad meets the Smucker’s standard.

  • When Prime Minister Churchill invited the wrong man to lunch

    The most celebrated conversationalist of mid-20th century Britain was the Oxford don, Isaiah Berlin. But he was unknown during World War II, when he was a lowly analyst, posted to Britain’s Washington embassy. His dispatches were so brilliant, so insightful that they often reached the desk of Prime Minister Churchill. So, it’s not surprising that, when Churchill learned that Mr. Berlin was in London, he invited him over for lunch to discuss the war effort. What happened next was a comedy of errors, recounted by the man who did receive the invitation, songwriter Irving Berlin, who was touring London with a play to raise money for the troops.

    For prominent Americans wartime London was remarkable for the easy access they enjoyed to the highest echelons of British society. Berlin received an invitation to have lunch with Winston Churchill at 10 Downing Street. Throughout the course of the war, Churchill had been entertained by dispatches written by the celebrated Oxford don Isaiah Berlin, who was assigned to the British Embassy in Washington. On hearing that the writer he so admired was visiting London, Churchill hastened to invite Isaiah Berlin to lunch. Through a bureaucratic mixup, however, the invitation went out to the songwriter rather than the political commentator.

    On the appointed day, Irving Berlin presented himself at the prime minister’s residence, where he was escorted to a comfortable room and given a cigar and a glass of brandy. In time, Churchill appeared, still under the impression that his guest was Isaiah Berlin. The prime minister wasted little time on pleasantries. “How is war production in the United States?” he demanded.

    Berlin was taken aback by the question. He was a composer and performer, not a war correspondent. “Oh, we’re doing fine,” he hesitantly answered.

    “What do you think Roosevelt’s chances of reelection are?”

    Uncomfortable at being called on to play political pundit, he gave the obvious answer. “I think he’ll win again.”

    “Good,” Churchill replied. “Good.”

    “But if he won’t run again,” Irving offered, “I don’t think I’ll vote at all.”

    For the first time, he had Churchill’s interest, not that he welcomed it. “You mean you think you’ll have a vote?” Churchill asked, a note of wonder–or was it British irony?–creeping into his voice.

    “I sincerely hope so,” Irving said.

    “That would be wonderful,” Churchill replied, appearing to sum up. “If only Anglo-American cooperation reached such a point that we could vote in each other’s elections. Professor, you have my admiration. You must stay for lunch.”

    Throughout lunch at 10 Downing Street, Irving was haunted by the feeling that he was well out of his depth. Why had Churchill addressed him as “professor”? He stopped trying to reply to Churchill’s probing questions and fell silent. Eventually Churchill turned his back on his taciturn guest. The awkward lunch finally came to a conclusion, and as Churchill left the room, he whispered loudly to an aide, “Berlin’s just like most bureaucrats. Wonderful on paper but disappointing when you meet them face to face.”

    Irving Berlin
    This is the Army

    berlin-irving-isaiah-and-city-labeledI am indebted to Bookworm Room blog for the quote and to my friend Prof. Jerry Cohen at UC Santa Barbara and, before that, at Tufts and Princeton, who shared stories about being mixed up with other professors named Jerry Cohen at every stop on his route. Btw, neither of the Jerry Cohens at Yale (below) are my friend. They are simply living off the goodwill of his name.




  • Obituaries: One of the last Bletchley Codebreakers–Elisabeth Hardy, translator

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    Elisabeth Hardy, one of the great Bletchley Park team that decrypted, translated, and analyzed Nazi communications, has died at 92. 

    After the war was won, her translation skills were a valuable asset at Nuremberg, where the Allies prosecuted the top Nazis.

    [At Bletchley Park,] she was given a significant role in her hut’s SALU sub-section, focusing on radio traffic from the Luftwaffe – notably German bombers and reconnaissance aircraft – and passing the information on to British pilots.

    The work gave the RAF a real advantage in aerial combat. Having impressed her superiors with her discretion, Elisabeth was then asked to be part of Joint Intelligence Commission at Nuremberg for the war trials of senior Nazis.

    Obituary for Elisabeth Hardy
    The Telegraph (UK)


    For a brief overview of Bletchley Park in World War II, see this “history” page from the UK historical site. The BBC has a very nice site on Bletchley Park, too.

    For those who want to look deeper, a good place to start is The Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park, edited by F. H. Hinsley and Alan Stripp. It includes 27 first-person accounts from people who worked at Bletchley.code-breakers-bookbletchley-sz42-6-wheels-lightened-500px